Today, there are about 150 qualified architects-restorers in Ukraine, despite the fact that there are only about 150 officially registered immovable monuments of cultural heritage in Ukraine. The lack of specialists is also evident in the context of the restoration of numerous historical objects that were destroyed during a full-scale invasion. At the same time in specialized universities of Ukraine currently almost do not have such a specialty as an architect-restorer, and the study of restoration work, as a rule, is included in the program of specialties of the faculty of architecture, which is not sufficient for the full training of a high-class specialist-restorer.
Given the fact that according to the requirements of the Law of Ukraine "On the Protection of Cultural Heritage" the restoration and conservation of architectural monuments can be ensured only by architects-restorers who have received appropriate professional training, its absence at the state level (in 2017, the specialty of architect- restorer was again deleted from the ministerial list) automatically calls into question the process of preserving the historical and cultural heritage of Ukraine in the future.
We previously discussed the issue of the professional training of restoration architects in Ukraine in the material "Profession of an architect-restorer in Ukraine. Problems of education and the development of the industry in the conditions of war"
PRAGMATIKA.MEDIA: Is much attention paid in Ukraine to the professional training of an architect in the direction of restoration and preservation of architectural heritage?
Tatyana Ladan: Compared to the way we learned in the 1990s, a lot has changed and, of course, for the better. I can say that the curricula and educational work programs of the disciplines are annually updated, improved, and new subjects also appear, sometimes due to the compression of hours or due to the transition to the block of optional disciplines. In general, the classical canvas of the educational process is flexible, it is in constant motion.
As for KNUBA, various courses of the Faculty of Architecture consistently lay a certain knowledge base, which can be used in various areas of artistic activity in the future, in particular during the restoration of architectural objects, and when solving issues related to the preservation of architectural heritage and its reconstruction . For example, in the training of bachelor architects, the topic of preservation of architectural heritage is covered more in the disciplines of theoretical training, because it is basic training. Yes, during four courses on "History of architecture and urban planning" students study the main monuments of architecture and urban planning of different countries of the world, including UNESCO monuments, styles of architectural objects, trends and currents in architecture. This knowledge makes it possible to understand the value of each object, to study its "details", materials, and in the future to identify, most importantly, development trends for further reconstruction and restoration of the architectural environment, in particular in real practical work.
Consolidating knowledge of the theory and history of architecture in the practical discipline "Architectural design" in the first year, each student personally draws architectural details or details of interior design objects, learns to develop a complex of chamber works on one of the projects and in measuring practice (steps, measurements-drawings, realistic drawings). And studying in an academic group allows you to get acquainted with a large number of objects of the architectural heritage of Ukraine and the world. Field trips to cultural heritage sites, where students get to know the problems of the project "by touch", are of particular importance in education.
"The secondary conceptual approach is the main criterion in the education of master architects with the definition of methods, principles and features of the formation of the architectural and planning solution of objects"
For example, the recent experience of comprehensive work on measurement practice (for first-year undergraduate students) and production practice (for first-year master's students) turned out to be quite positive: chamber drawings were made at the same time, and proposals were made for the reconstruction and restoration of architectural objects and interior design. erev We implemented such comprehensive work at the Department of Fundamentals of Architecture and Architectural Design (OAAP) for 5 years in 2015-2019 in the State Historical and Cultural Reserve in the city of Dubno (Dubno Castle). With the assistance of Oleg Sleptsov - professor, doctor of architecture, head of the Department of the Academy of Arts and Sciences (since 2010), president of the Ukrainian Academy of Architecture (since 2021), People's Architect of Ukraine, and Leonid Kichaty - director of the DIKZ in Dubna, students and teachers of the department were involved in works on the restoration and reconstruction of buildings and structures on the territory of the reserve (Duben Castle, Lutsk Gate, Transfiguration Church, Synagogue) and adjacent territories, one of which is the Tarakan Fort. Later, the results of this cooperation were formalized into a long-term complex project "CASTLE".
It is also worth noting that the students of the first year of KNUBA annually undergo measuring practice on the territory of the National Reserve "Sofia Kyivska" - a UNESCO site.
PM: What can a modern higher education institution offer to applicants, young specialists who aspire to become restorers or improve their qualifications, gain deeper and more systematic knowledge?
T. L.: From 2018 to 2023, at the Department of Fundamentals of Architecture and Architectural Design, the curriculum for the training of masters of architecture was significantly reformatted, two blocks of disciplines were formed under the educational and scientific program 191 "Architecture and Urban Planning": "Reconstruction and restoration of architectural objects, sacred architecture" and "Innovative architecture". In them, along with issues of reconstruction, topics related to the restoration of architectural objects and monuments of UNESCO architecture were studied. Thus, during master's studies, students-architects can significantly expand knowledge on the topic, choosing one of the following disciplines: "Methodology of reconstruction and restoration of interiors of architectural objects in styles", "Scientific and theoretical research in the field of restoration of architectural objects" abо «Engineering and technological issues in the reconstruction and restoration of architectural objects».
"I believe that the profession of an architect as an "architect-creator-researcher" will always be in demand, there are few such specialists and there is currently a great shortage of them."
Studying the palette of various additive technologies (VIM-technologies and others) during the restoration and reproduction of elements of architectural objects is also one of the directions of the educational process of KNUBA. Similarly, the study of materials, their work and properties, which are important to know for the restoration of objects, have always been the basis of basic training in the discipline "Materials Science" in the first year for undergraduate students of the Faculty of Architecture.
P.M.: To what extent is the profession of restorer and researcher in demand, should it be and will it continue to be in demand, according to practitioners? What are the problems in the industry?
T. L.: I think that the profession of an architect-restorer will perhaps not be as relevant as the profession of an artist-restorer — as a technologist, biologist and chemist at the same time. During the attribution of authorship of works of art of monumental painting, sculpture, stained glass, applied art, during the production of copies of lost or damaged parts, knowledge of various historical and author's techniques, recipes, protocols of restoration measures for various materials and textures will be extremely important.
For example, in the practice of my scientific research, I came across such a phenomenon that over time, the ensemble style feature of residential buildings of the late 1920s and early 1930s in the Lypoki district of Kyiv was lost due to plastering with random, uncharacteristic colors for the time of its construction. And this is far from the only example of superficial attitude only to the appearance of architectural objects. A minor change, such as plastering or painting, and entire eras and style ensembles immediately disappear...
PM: In your opinion, what scientific work and specialists in the protection of architectural heritage can our country be proud of?
T. L.: Ukraine can certainly be proud of such a researcher of the medieval architecture of Western Ukraine and Podillia, the fortification art of the city of Kamianets-Podilskyi, as Olha Plamenitska (1956–2022) — professor, candidate of architecture, architect-restorer, with whom we had the opportunity to work at the department OAAP KNUBA in the period 2007–2017.
It should also be noted the excellent repair and restoration work on restoring the interiors Metropolitan's house in the National Reserve "Sofia of Kyiv" with the discovery and restoration of fragments of a unique monumental painting of the 2003th century. The works were carried out in 2008–XNUMX under the leadership of the chief project architect of the Ukrrestavratsiya corporation Serhiy Yurchenko and the head of the scientific and restoration workshop of the Sofia Kyivska National Reserve, artist-restorer Anatoly Ostapchuk.
Special respect should also be paid to restoration specialists who, during military operations without any state scientific programs, at the call of their souls ensure the proper preservation of historical monuments. One of these objects is a sample of sacred architecture - the Johann-Georg Pinzel museum in Lviv, its preservation is carried out at the initiative of the restoration workshop of the artist-restorer, cultural figure Inna Dmytruk-Sorokhtey and her colleagues.